Insects and diseases Mosi-guard Natural® protects against


1. What insect bites does Mosi-guard Natural® protect against?

Mosi-guard Natural® repels disease carrying insects such as Mosquitoes, Ticks, Sand Flies, Black Flies and Stable Flies. Mosi-guard Natural® also repels annoying insects such as Midges and Land Leeches which can lead to infected insect bites.


2. Are there any insects and insect bites to worry about in the UK?

Mosquitoes, Midges and Ticks are found in the UK. Mosquitoes and midges in the UK are not usually disease transmitters, but these insect bites commonly result in painful irritation and swelling. They are most prevalent during the summer months in gardens and the countryside, especially after dusk. Ticks can spread disease in the UK and are particularly prevalent in the New Forest.


3. What are vector-borne diseases and where are they found?

Vector-borne diseases are illnesses caused by living organisms (such as mosquitoes) that transmit disease (such as malaria) between humans or from animals to humans. This map by the World Health Organisation shows where the most deaths from vector-borne diseases take place around the world. 


4. What diseases does each insect spread and where are they found?

Anopheles Mosquitoes 

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective mosquito repellent that will help repel the Anopheles mosquito which is best known for being the primary vector of malaria in humans and heartworm in dogs. They are found nearly worldwide (except Antarctica), with most being active either at dawn, dusk or at night. Of the approximately 430 different types of Anopheles species, only 30-40 transmit malaria depending on region and environmental conditions. The two most common malaria vectors in Africa, A. gambiae and A. funestus, are strongly anthropophilic, preferring to feed on human blood. This makes them incredibly efficient in the transmission of the disease and makes the elimination of malaria particularly difficult.

Anopheles mosquitoes can be distinguished from other mosquitoes in several ways. Their palps are as long as the proboscis, they have blocks of black and white scales on their wings, and their typical resting position is with their abdomens sticking up in the air rather than parallel to the surface on which they are resting.

Mosi-guard Natural® protects against Anopheles Mosquitoes
The Mosi-guard Natural® line of products, as well as other Citriodiol® (Eucalyptus citriodora oil hydrated, cyclized EC Oil (H/C) based repellents, have been tested in both lab and field studies throughout the world against various Anopheles species including A. stephensi, A. freeborni, A. darlingi, A. albimanus, A. quadrimaculatus, A. arabiensis, A. mediopunctatus, and those most responsible for the transmission of malaria in Africa, A. gambiae and A. funestus.

 

Citations
Test of an Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus-Based Insect Repellent; Carroll, 2007 (30% spray) (6+ hours CPT) (Anopheles freeborni)

Efficacy of Repellent Products Against Caged and Free Flying Anopheles Stephensi Mosquitoes; Trongtokit, 2005 (30% lotion) (CPT 7-8 hours) (9 repellents tested) (Anopheles Stephensi) 

Evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. In Tanzania; Trigg, (1996) (50% spray; stick and gel) (CPT 6+ hours) (Anopheles gambiae and funestus)


Culex Mosquitoes

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective mosquito repellent that will help repel the Culex species of Mosquito (also known as the common house Mosquito). It ranges from the tropics to cool temperate regions, but does not extend to the extreme northern latitudes where only Aedes and Ochlerotatus occur. They are painful and persistent biters who prefer to attack at dusk and after dark. They readily enter dwellings for blood meals. Culex are the primary vectors of West Nile virus, and transmit other important diseases such as filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, Red River viruses and Rift Valley fever.

Mosi-guard Natural® protects against Culex Mosquitoes
The Mosi-guard Natural® line of products, as well as other Citriodiol® and Eucalyptus citriodora oil hydrated, cyclized EC Oil (H/C) based repellents, have been tested against various Culex species of Mosquitoes in both lab and field studies throughout the world, with 100% protection measured in the field for up to 8 hours at 30% concentration.

 

Citations
Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus, Barnard, et al, 2004. (Repel lotion 30%) (6-8 hours protection time vs. Culex)

Laboratory Testing for Insect Repellents Efficacy - Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus; Barnard, 2000. (40% spray) (CPT 8.34 hours – better than 25% DEET)


Aedes Mosquitoes

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective mosquito repellent that will help repel the Aedes mosquito. It is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents except Antarctica. They are opportunistic and aggressive biters, whose feeding peaks in the early morning and late afternoon. However, some types of Aedes (such as Aedes aegypti) are capable of breeding indoors and therefore bite throughout the day. This ability to breed indoors also makes them less susceptible to climatic variations and increases the mosquitoes’ longevity. Aedes mosquitoes have been able to expand their geographic distribution rather easily through the increase in international trade due to the fact that their eggs can withstand very dry conditions and remain viable for many months in the absence of water. Members of the Aedes genus are known vectors of many diseases, most notably dengue fever, yellow fever, West Nile fever, chikungunya and eastern equine encephalitis

The Mosi-guard Natural® line of products, as well as other Citriodiol®/Eucalyptus citriodora oil hydrated, cyclized EC Oil (H/C) based repellents, have been tested against various Aedes species of mosquitoes in both lab and field studies throughout the world, with 100% protection measured in the field for up to 8 hours at 30% concentration.

 

Citations

Test of an Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus-Based Insect Repellent; Carroll, 2007 (30% Citriodiol® spray) (Aedes vexans and melanimon) (complete protection for 6+ hours.)

Green synthesis of para-Menthane-3,8-diol from Eucalyptus citriodora; Application for repellent products; Drapeau, 2011 (20% PMDRBO/13% PMD) (complete protection for 5 hours) (Aedes aegypti)

Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus, Barnard, et al, 2004 (30% Citriodiol® lotion) (complete protection for 7.5-8.0 hours) (Aedes albopictus)

PMD, a registered botanical mosquito repellent with deet-like efficacy; Carroll S and Loye J, Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 22:(3), 507-514 (2006) (30% Citriodiol® lotion & 40% Citriodiol® spray) (complete protection for more than 5 hours for both products) (Aedes aegypti & vexans)

Mosquito Repellent Efficacy (Laboratory); Carroll, 2002 (30% Citriodiol® cream) (complete protection for more than 5 hours – outperformed 10% deet & 10% picaridin) (Aedes aegypti)

Laboratory Testing for Insect Repellents Efficacy - Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus; Barnard, 2000 (40% Spray) (complete protection for 5 hours against aegypti and 7.2 hrs against albopictus)


Biting Midge

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective midge repellent. There are over 4,000 species of biting midges, ranging in size from 1-3mm in length. The distribution of midges in the genus Culicoides is world-wide. They are found in marshy habitats, as well as mountainous regions, depending upon species. One of the areas most renowned for human feeding midges (typically Culicoides impuncatus) is the Highlands of Scotland, where midges can cause discomfort to tourists and disruption to outdoor industry, including agriculture and forestry. An estimated 20% of working hours are lost in the Scottish forestry industry each summer due to biting midge attacks, so a midge repellent that reduces the negative impact of midges is essential. 

Biting midges are a nuisance to anyone who enjoys being outdoors and their bites are irritating and painful. They are most active in the early morning and evening, but can remain active all day when it is cloudy with little wind. In Central and South America, western and central Africa, and some Caribbean islands, biting midges are more than just a nuisance. They are the vectors of filarial worms which can cause skin infections and lesions. Biting midges are often incorrectly referred to as Sand Flies.

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective midge repellent
The Mosi-guard Natural® line of products, as well as other Citriodiol® and Eucalyptus citriodora oil hydrated, cyclized EC Oil (H/C) based insect repellents, have been tested against various biting midge species in both lab and field studies throughout the world. Studies show Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective midge repellent with a range of complete protection times of up to 7 hours based upon application rates and species.

 

Citations
Assessment of the Activity in the Field of Two Citriodiol-based Personal Insect Repellents Against Culicoides spp. Biting Midges. Blackwell, October 2013 (complete protection for several hours even at very low rate of application).

The Effectiveness of WPC Brands, Inc., Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus Mosquito and Tick Repellents: Results of Tests; Carroll, 2002. (99% reduction in biting) 

Field Test of a Lemon Eucalyptus Repellent Against Leptoconops Biting Midges; Carroll, 2001 (complete protection for 6 hours)

Evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based repellent against Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Scotland; Trigg (1996) (high concentration Mosi-guard Natural product gave better results than DEET; complete protection 6-7 hours; 99% reduction in biting after 8-10 hours)


Ticks

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective tick repellent. Ticks are members of the arachnid family. They are widely distributed around the world.  In the UK they are most prevalent in the New Forest. They are a vector of a number of diseases, including lyme disease, Colorado tick fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, African tick bite fever, tularemia, tick-borne relapsing fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, tick paralysis, and tick-borne meningoencephalitis. They thrive in countries with warm, humid climates because of the higher moisture content in the air which is good for their development. 

Ticks find their hosts by sensing breath, body odours, body heat, moisture and vibrations. They are not able to fly or jump. Instead they hold onto leaves and grass with their first pair of legs outstretched, waiting to climb onto a passing host, a behaviour referred to as “questing”. Once they have found a host, they attach themselves (very often where the skin is thinnest) and gorge on their host’s blood for several days. They often go unnoticed due to pain killers secreted in their saliva. It is during this feeding that ticks can transmit one or more pathogens. 

Mosi-guard Natural® is an effective tick repellent
The Mosi-guard Natural® line of products, as well as other Citriodiol® (Eucalyptus citriodora oil hydrated, cyclized EC Oil (H/C) based repellents, have been tested against various tick species in both lab and field studies throughout the world. The results clearly support the use of Mosi-guard Natural® as an excellent tool in repelling ticks from attaching and feeding, with Complete Protection Times on par with 20 to 30% DEET products.

 

Citations
Laboratory Test - 'Deer Tick' Repellent Efficacy/Duration of Wisconsin Phamacal Company Formulae: 1) Natural Insect Repellent Lotion (PF #7030B, Lot #092999) and 2) Natural Insect Repellent Pump (Spray)(ID #0625982, Lot #0927991); Carroll, 1999 (Ixodes pacificus) (CPT up to 5.75 hours; up to 99.9% reduction in biting).

The Effectiveness of WPC Brands, Inc., Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus Mosquito and Tick Repellents: Results of Tests; Carroll, 2002 (Ixodes pacificus) (95% reduction in biting).

A prospective, non-placebo controlled, crossover field trial of the protective effect of Mosi-guard Natural® concerning tick bites; Gustafson, Wohlfart, & Gardulf, 2001 (Ixodes ricinus) (Significant reduction in bites. 42 with Mosi-guard Natural® vs. 112 without).

Report on repellency effects of Mosi-guard Natural® against ticks in Germany; Weisser, 2000 (Ixodes ricinus) (90-95% reduction in biting).

Laboratory evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based repellent against four biting arthropods; Trigg, Hill (1996) (Ixodes ricinus) (only 10% of ticks fed with Mosi-guard Natural® vs. 65% of ticks fed without).

 

Sand Flies

Sand Flies are members of the Phlebotominae subfamily, which includes many genera of blood-feeding flies. They can be found in a wide range of habitats between latitude 50°N and 40°S (excluding New Zealand and the Pacific Islands), varying by species. They are often confused with other types of biting flies because the common name "sand fly" is also used generically when referring to other genera of biting flies. Sand Flies are small (2-3mm in length) and brownish in color in the daylight but their bodies are densely covered in oily hairs which give the insects a whitish, moth-like appearance when illuminated. The most distinctive feature of the sand fly is that they hold their wings in a raised 'V' while at rest, their wings are never closed or laid flat across the body.

Sand Flies are nocturnal feeders, with only the female responsible for biting and then sucking the blood of their host. The bites from a sand fly are painful and leave large itchy bumps. They tend to last longer than and are often several times itchier, than mosquito bites. They find shelter during the day in dark, humid places such as tree holes or under rocks. Sand Flies have very weak direct flight abilities, so they do not hover around their host, thereby reducing the perceived nuisance of the species. Of the 700 species of sand fly, 70 are considered to be vectors of diseases including leishmaniasis, bartonellosis and pappataci fever.

Mosi-guard Natural® protects against Sand Flies
Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellent has been laboratory tested against the sand fly species Phlebotomus papatas and was highly effective, with a complete protection time of 8 hours and 94% repellency after 12 hours.

 

Citation
Insect repellent trial with Sand Flies using spray with 50% Citriodiol®; Dillon (Phlebotomus papatas) (complete protection for 8 hours and 94% protection for 12 hours)

 

Land Leeches

Land Leeches are blood sucking ectoparasites that feed on mammals. They are common in tropical and sub-tropical rainforests. Leeches are not known to spread any diseases but their bites cause hemorrhaging that is difficult to stop. As wounds stop bleeding, localised inflammation and itching is common at the bite site. Most land leech species remain on the ground while awaiting a host then attach themselves to a person’s footwear and climb upwards. Once they are attached to a host, they are not easily removed. Some species do climb to higher vegetation during wet weather to await a host.

There are two primary methods of protection against Leeches, leech socks and repellents. Leeches have damp skin, making them very sensitive to various substances and chemicals. Repellents in leech infested areas are often applied to shoes, boots and to trousers tucked into socks from the ankle to the knee (with application to areas above the knee in areas where climbing land Leeches are prevalent). 

Mosi-guard Natural® protects against Land Leeches
Mosi-guard Natural® has been tested against Land Leeches in both laboratory and field studies and was found to be highly effective providing complete protection for 6 hours in the field. With heavy spray intensity a high degree of protection was afforded for up to 24 hours.

 

Citation
Laboratory and Field Tests of the Effectiveness of the Lemon Eucalyptus Extract, Citriodiol®, as a Repellent Against Land Leeches; Kirton, 2003. (Haemadipsa sylvestris, interrupta and picta) (complete protection time 6 hours)


Black Flies

Black Flies are small, ranging in size from 5 to 15mm, and black or grey in colour. They breed exclusively in running water. Because of their ability to filter dissolved organic matter and make it available to other species in the food chain, they are a keystone species in the ecology of water bodies. However, this trait also makes Black Flies very susceptible to both organic and inorganic pollution in our waterways, making them good indicator species for the ecological condition of fresh water streams and rivers.

Black Fly species vary in their preferred host for a blood meal, some preferring humans and others preferring birds and other mammals. Black Fly bites can be very painful, with itching and swelling generally occurring at the bite site. Intense feedings can cause a condition known as Black Fly Fever, with headache, nausea, fever, swollen lymph nodes and aching joints being the most common symptoms. In certain areas of the world, such as Africa and mountainous regions of South and Central America, Black Flies can transmit a parasitic nematode worm that can infect humans and cause a disease known as onchocerciasis or river blindness

Black Flies are active only during the day, with peak activity around 9:00 to 11:00 AM and again from 4:00 to 7:00pm. They tend to be most active on humid, cloudy days and just before storms. 

Mosi-guard Natural® protects against Black Flies
Mosi-guard Natural® has been tested against the Black Fly species Simulium woodi in the field, with protection times nearing 4 hours.

 

Citation
Brief assessment of Mosi-guard Natural® spray formulation as compared to DEET spray formulation against blackfly; Trigg, 1993. (Simulium woodi) (protection time of 3 hours 50 min).

 

Stable Flies

The Stable Fly (Stomoxys spp.) also called the barn fly, biting house fly, dog fly or power mower fly, is lighter in color than the common house fly and somewhat smaller in size, generally about 5-7mm in length. Unlike a house fly, its mouth parts have biting structures, rather than those built for sponging. Both male and female Stable Flies feed predominately on animals (mostly horses and cattle). However, they are known to bite humans in the absence of an animal host. 

Stable Flies can be found worldwide wherever suitable weather and feeding conditions are present. Their feeding increases during warm weather and decreases during rainy weather. They are daytime feeders, locating their host by sight and feeding from several hosts until full. After feeding Stable Flies are very sluggish and rest nearby their host in a sunny spot.

The Stable Fly is reported to be a possible vector of trypanosoma evansi, t.brucei, t. cazalboui, t. pecaudia, brucellosis, swine erysipelcs, equine Infectious anemia, African horse sickness, fowlpox, and bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax in domestic animals and humans. The accumulation of Stable Fly bites can also cause anemia and weight loss in livestock, a significant loss in milk production in dairy cattle and destroy cattle hides, causing economic losses in livestock related industries.

Mosi-guard Natural® protects against Stable Flies
Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellent has been tested against the stable fly species Stomoxy calcitrans and was found to reduce biting by 94% for at least 5 hours.

 

Citation
Laboratory evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based repellent against four biting arthropods; Trigg, Hill (1996) (Stomoxys calcitrans) (up to 94% protection for 5 hours).

5. What can I do to avoid these insect bites?

Always find out the most up-to-date information on insects and diseases for your travel destination. Websites like Know Before You Go and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases provide such useful information. GPs and travel clinics can also offer valuable advice about the most effective preventative medication for your destination.

However, it is important to note that no preventative medication offers 100% protection, so it is very important to avoid being bitten.

Mosquito bite prevention

Keep covered up
Most mosquitoes bite between dusk and dawn. Avoid exposing your skin by wearing long sleeved shirts and trousers. Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and yellow fever are mainly active during the day with their peak biting times shortly after sunrise and just before sunset. To avoid being bitten by these daytime biters avoid outdoor shady conditions and sleep under a mosquito net if you take a siesta.

Use effective insect repellent
If your skin is exposed then it is important to use a safe and effective insect repellent on all areas of exposed skin. 

Use a mosquito net at night
Mosquito nets provide very good protection especially when impregnated with the residual insecticide permethrin. Permethrin is poorly absorbed by the skin and has a low mammalian toxicity. There are a number of different styles of mosquito net and you should choose the one most suitable for where you are.

Air-conditioning
Sleeping in a room with air-conditioning will discourage mosquitoes. 

Use a plug-in insecticide vaporiser
Use a knockdown spray (any fly spray will do) to clear the room of mosquitoes. Plug-in insecticide vaporisers are very effective for overnight protection as long as the room is relatively free from draughts. The vaporisers consist of a heating pad onto which an insecticide soaked tablet is placed. The insecticide gradually vaporises throughout the night killing any mosquitoes that get into the room.

Spray mosquito breeding grounds
If you are staying for long periods in areas where mosquitoes are a problem, then remember that they breed in stagnant water. Mosquitoes lay eggs in as little as a quarter inch of standing water. A good mosquito bite prevention method is to ensure mosquito breeding areas within 500 yards of your accommodation are regularly sprayed or eliminated. 

Midge bite prevention

Midges are tiny swarming insects that are common in the Scottish Highlands during the summer months. Bites from midges do not transmit disease but can make life almost unbearable. Mosi-guard Natural® will help stop midges from biting but not from swarming around you. You can avoid midges with anti-midge hats, midge body suits and midge netting (smaller than mosquito nets) to cover tent entrances. Natural remedies include garlic, marmite, yeast tablets, sprigs of bog-myrtle or burning citronella. 

Tick bite prevention

Tick bites spread lyme disease in the UK and abroad. There is currently no vaccine against lyme disease so you must be aware that areas with ground cover, foliage and diverse wildlife can pose a risk of ticks. To prevent tick bites use an insect repellent and keep covered up. Tucking your trouser legs into your socks will help. After being outside in tick prone areas be sure to check your body, pets and clothing for ticks. Carry a tick remover so you can quickly remove ticks and reduce the chance of disease transmission.